XPath for beginners | Selenium Automation Testing - Part 1

Hey Guys, 

"XPath for beginners" articles are authored by our guest Megha Kharbanda. These awesome tutorials will help you to understand xpath from scratch.  

Part 1: About x-path and its basic syntax:

X-Path is used to navigate through web elements and attributes in an XML Document. From automation testing perspective (especially with selenium), xpath helps in identifying the web elements.

X-Paths can be created by:

  • Basic Syntax
  • Using AND & OR
  • Contains ()
  • Starts – With ()
  • Text ()
  • Following
  • Preceding
  • Ancestor

Sprint Retrospectives - From Testing Team perspective

Retrospectives are carried out after every sprint. Basic purpose of this retrospective meeting is -
  • What went well - [Continue doing]
  • What didn't went well - [Stop doing]
  • Improvement Areas - [Start doing]
Some common problems are seen across all teams –
  • Team members are not giving enough inputs in retrospective. How to get desired inputs from team members?
  • Improvement Areas are identified during retrospective, but How much improvement is made by team after each sprint? Answer is - Team does not know.
  • Retrospective meeting ended up in a blame game - Testers vs Devs. How to stop this?
In this post we will focus on problem 1: Team members are not giving enough inputs in retrospective. How to get desired inputs from team members?
There is a famous quote - if you don't ask you don't get. Similarly, if you don’t ask your team about right questions you will not get desired inputs from team. Manager/Scrum master need to go through all phases of the sprint and get inputs from team. Manager/Scrum master should ask following questions to the team:

Test Mobile Readiness of any website | Mobile-friendly testing tool

Mobile Friendly Websites are the Future. Mobile ecosystem is growing and it is very important for website owners and companies who provide online services/products to support their products/services on mobile browsers.

What if outstanding defect count is high and software production push date is near?

My this article is in response to a linkedin question "What to do when we are out of time, application is not bug free and tomorrow its going for production?"

Here are my thoughts on this:
1. Make a list of all open defects and share across all key stakeholders like Requirement Owner (PO, Business Analyst), Dev Lead, Dev Manager, Test Lead, Test Manager, Delivery Manager (stakeholders may vary.. depends on your project)

2. Schedule a defect triage meeting to prioritize all defects in following categories -

Category A: Issues which must be fixed. Software cant be released without that.
Category B: high-priority Issues that should be included in the solution if it is possible
Category C: Issues which is considered desirable but not necessary
Category D: Defects which will not be fixed (issues which does not generate any value addition to the software)

ISTQB and CSTE Software Testing Certification Comparison - Which one is better?

There are two key testing certification bodies – ISTQB & CSTE. ISTQB is easy and popular among UK testers. But CSTE is well recognized in states. (See the comparison table below)

[[ A Must Read - 
Sr. No Area of comparison ISTQB CSTE
1 Certification provided by International Software Testing Qualification Board (ISTQB) Quality Assurance Institute (QAI)
http://www.istqb.org/ http://softwarecertifications.org/
2 Prerequisites None. Anyone can take up this examination 18 months of experience in Software Testing + minimal educational experience (check the website… It gives this very clearly)
3 Levels of Certification offered Certified Tester Foundation Level (CTFL) Certified Associate in Software Testing (CAST) 
Certified Tester Advanced Level – Test Analyst (CTAL-TL) Certified Software Test Engineer (CSTE) 
Certified Tester Advanced Level – Technical Test Analyst (CTAL-TTL) Certified Manager of Software Testing: (CMST)
Certified Tester Advanced Level – Test Manager (CTAL-TM)
4 Certification coverage Can be considered as a subset of CSTE syllabus. Superior coverage when compared to ISTQB.. 10 Skill categories are there
ISQTB certification has 4 levels , starts from Foundation. Probably somewhere between 2nd level and 3rd level of ISQTB would match CSTE.
5 Examination pattern ISTQB Foundation: 75 Mins closed book exam consists of approximately 40 multiple choice questions of 1 points each. An exam amounts to 40 points total, pass is 65%(26 points) CSTE has four sections and total exam duration is 270 min. There are 2 section having 50 objective questions and time limit is 45 min and 2 sections having subjective 6 to 10 questions and time limit as 75 min. With 10 min, break after each paper the total duration.
6 Recertification Required for First Level? No Yes – every 3 years
7 Others - CSTE costs approximately thrice compared to ISTQB foundation level
- ISQTB is totally objective while CSTE examination consists of written and objective
- CSTE is preferred in US and Asian countries, while ISTQB/ISEB preferred in UK